Short Title:Historical & Contemporary Parks and Gardens
Full Title:Historical & Contemporary Parks and Gardens
Module Code:HTSC H4029
ECTS credits: 5
NFQ Level:8
Module Delivered in 2 programme(s)
Module Contributor:Christopher Boylan
Module Description:This module aims to give the student an understanding of four aspects of parks and gardens namely: Parks and Gardens of Historic significance; Plant Hunters and Garden Conservation theorists; Restoration and Conservation methods, techniques and approaches and the Development and Management of Parks and Gardens. Students will be introduced to important examples of restored Historic Parks and Gardens in Ireland and abroad, and important contemporary examples. There will be an emphasis on the heritage value and importance of Parks and Gardens, and the role of horticulturists in their conservation and restoration. These are important landscapes, which are representative of one or several periods in history, or display the work of well-known garden designers, landscape architects or have associations with famous owners or visitors. Students will study plant hunters who introduced species from other continents in past centuries, many of these species form significant collections in parks and gardens in Ireland. The review will include threats to the existence of historical landscapes that makes conservation and restoration necessary and will focus on legal protection, financial aid and sources of assistance. It will equip the student to identify the skills required to research, schedule and design historic garden restoration with particular emphasis on conservation throughout the process and its development phases. The student will see how these historical trends are reflected in modern landscapes and gardens. The public usage of parks and gardens will be discussed including their value for tourism. There will be an outline of the skills necessary for the management and development of parks and gardens as important elements of green infrastructure as well as facilities for public education and enjoyment.
Learning Outcomes:
On successful completion of this module the learner will be able to
  1. Analyse the important features in designed gardens, historical and contemporary, and attempt to relate these to their societies.
  2. Have knowledge of the origins of gardens in Ireland and abroad and the reasons for the development of public parks.
  3. Have a knowledge of plant hunters who introduced species to Europe from the rest of the world and the impact that the contribution they made towards the development of botanic gardens and private collections.
  4. Identify the elements in a garden which warrant restoration for reasons of condition, heritage value, original design component and sustainability.
  5. To know the diverse values of parks and be able to apply management principles within budgetary limitations.

Module Content & Assessment

Indicative Content
Parks and Gardens of Historic significance
Historical gardens and landscapes, including medieval gardens and monastic crop growing, Islamic and Moorish gardens, the Italian Renaissance, French formal gardens, eighteenth century English landscape styles and the development of North American gardens in the colonial period. This will include gardens that are still extant, as well as historical records of gardens that no longer exist. The student will gain an appreciation of the design features and techniques used through those periods in particular countries,
Plant Hunters and Garden Conservation theorists
The major designers and gardeners, and their particular styles or influences through history including Capability Brown and Humphrey Repton. The significant European plant hunters and collectors including Augustine Henry, David Douglas, and Joseph Banks and the plants of significance they introduced to historic gardens and how this influenced gardens during those times. The role of botanical gardens and garden conservation theorists and their work.
Restoration and Conservation methods, techniques and approaches
Sources of evidence in a restoration project. Decision making processes in restorative work and audits of particular extant landscapes types. The limitations of historical knowledge. Decision making in conjunction with other professionals working on garden restoration projects, such as engineers, archaeologists and historians. The importance of conservation and how to achieve it at all stages of the restoration process. Examples of significant garden archaeology projects, and the techniques employed on these projects.
The Development and Management of Parks and Gardens
Processes and techniques of developing parks and gardens with an emphasis on green infrastructure and sustainable management practices. Access and use of government funding and EU initiatives. Discussion on management models, open space strategies, customer surveys and benchmarking. Developing historic gardens attractions as education resources and other functions. Hosting garden events and shows and their impact on the restored landscape. Ideas on income generation to assist management budgets.
Indicative Assessment Breakdown%
Course Work Assessment %30.00%
Final Exam Assessment %70.00%
Course Work Assessment %
Assessment Type Assessment Description Outcome addressed % of total Assessment Date
Case study Students will be required to evaluate a park or garden under a given criteria and present their findings in class. 1,4,5 20.00 n/a
In-class test There will be a series of short tests when particular lecture sessions are completed 1,2,3,4 10.00 n/a
Final Exam Assessment %
Assessment Type Assessment Description Outcome addressed % of total Assessment Date
Formal Exam End-of-Semester Final Examination 1,2,3,4,5 70.00 End-of-Semester
Indicative Reassessment Requirement
Repeat examination
Reassessment of this module will consist of a repeat examination. It is possible that there will also be a requirement to be reassessed in a coursework element.

ITB reserves the right to alter the nature and timings of assessment


Indicative Module Workload & Resources

Indicative Workload: Full Time
Frequency Indicative Average Weekly Learner Workload
Every Week 24.00
Twice per semester 2.13
Every Week 20.00
Recommended Book Resources
  • Ehrenfried Kluckert 2007, European Garden Design, h.f. Ullman Germany [ISBN: 9783833135019]
  • Penelope Hobhouse,, Plants in Garden History [ISBN: 1857932730]
  • Keith Lamb & Patrick Bowe 1995, A history of gardening in Ireland, 9, National Botanic Gardens Glasnevin, Dublin [ISBN: 0707616662]
Supplementary Book Resources
  • Geoffrey and Susan Jellicoe 1995, The landscape of man, Thames & Hudson London [ISBN: 0500278199]
  • Clemens Steenbergen, Wouter Reh, Architecture and landscape [ISBN: 3764303352]
  • Susan Lasdun 1991, The English park, Deutsch London [ISBN: 0233987193]
  • edited by Clare Cooper Marcus and Carolyn Francis; drawings by Su Sin Tang and Yun Flora Yeh 1998, People places, Van Nostrand Reinhold New York [ISBN: 0471288330]
  • Penelope Hobhouse,, Gardens of Persia [ISBN: 978-1844034338]
  • Emma Clark,, The Art of the Islamic Garden [ISBN: 1847972047]
  • Sylvia Landsberg,, The Medieval Garden [ISBN: 0714105902]
  • Roy Strong 1979, The Renaissance garden in England, Thames and Hudson London [ISBN: 978-0500272145]
  • Michael Symes 2006, A glossary of garden history, Shire Publications Princes Risborough [ISBN: 0747806462]
  • Clemens Steenbergen, Wouter Reh, Architecture and landscape, Basel ; Birkhï¿œuser, 2003. [ISBN: 3764303352]
  • Yves Porter, Arthur Thaevenart 2003, Palaces and gardens of Persia, Flammarion Paris [ISBN: 2080112570]
  • Eduardo Mencos 2004, Hidden gardens of Spain, Frances Lincoln London [ISBN: 0711219648]
  • by David Lambert, Peter Goodchild and Judith Roberts, Researching a garden's history [ISBN: 0951837702]
  • edited by Clare Cooper Marcus and Carolyn Francis; drawings by Su Sin Tang and Yun Flora Yeh 1998, People places, Van Nostrand Reinhold New York [ISBN: 0471288330]
  • Shirley Lanigan,, Guide to Irish Gardens [ISBN: 0-86278-632-0]
  • Marianne Heron; [illustrations by Michael Fewer; index compiled by Bridget Lunn] 1993, The hidden gardens of Ireland, Gill & Macmillan Dublin [ISBN: 07171202955]
  • Charles Quest-Ritson,, RHS Garden Finder 2006-2007 [ISBN: 978-1-84525-018-8]
  • Hyams, Edward & William MacQuitty 1967, Irish Gardens, MacDonald & Co. London
  • photographs by Michael George; text by Patrick Bowe, The gardens of Ireland, Little Boston [ISBN: 0-8212-1619-8]
  • Edward Malins & the Knight of Glin; foreword by Desmond Guinness 1976, Lost demesnes, Barrie & Jenkins London [ISBN: 0214202755]
  • Seamus O'Brien,, In the Footsteps of Augustine Henry [ISBN: 978-1-87067-373-0]
  • Olda Fitzgerald 1999, Irish Gardens, Conran Octopus London
  • edited by Sybil Connolly & Helen Dillon; photographs by Walter Pfeiffer 1986, In an Irish garden, Weidenfeld and Nicolson London [ISBN: 0297789295]
  • Edward Malins and Patrick Bowe 1980, Irish gardens and demesnes from 1830, Barrie & Jenkins London [ISBN: 0214206289]
  • Maria Brambilla 2005, Great Gardens of Europe [ISBN: 1-84537-085-6]
  • Peter Coats 1963, Great Gardens of the Western World, Weidenfield & Nicolson
  • George Plumptre,, Heritage Gardens, Mitchell Beazley London [ISBN: 9781845332716]
  • Richard Carrington 1967, Great National Parks, Weidenfeld & Nicolson
  • John A. McCullen, An Illustrated History of the Phoenix Park - Landscape and Management to 1880, Office of Public Workd Ireland [ISBN: 978-1-4064-2425-6]
  • Howard Loxton, History of the Garden - Its Evolution & Design, Bounty Books London [ISBN: 0753711079]
  • edited by Patrick Taylor 2006, The Oxford companion to the garden, Oxford University Press Oxford [ISBN: 9780198662556]
  • edited by E. C. Nelson & A. Brady 1979, Irish gardening and horticulture, Royal Horticultural Society of Ireland [Dublin] [ISBN: 0950684600]
  • E. Charles Nelson, Eileen M. McCracken; with original watercolours by Wendy F. Walsh 1987, The brightest jewel, Boethius Kilkenny [ISBN: 0863140831]
  • Robert Scott, A breath of fresh air [ISBN: 0856406902]
  • George Plumptre 1994, Great gardens, great designers, Ward Lock London [ISBN: 0706372034]
  • Bob Gibbons 1994, A Guide to the National Parks and other Wild Places of Britain and Europe, New Holland London [ISBN: 1853682373]
  • John Gilbert,, Gardens of Britain [ISBN: 0861340981]
  • E.C. Nelson,, A Heritage of Beauty [ISBN: 0951589016]
  • Desmond McCabe 2011, St. Stephen's Green, Dublin 1660 - 1875, Office of Public Works Ireland [ISBN: 9781406425864]
  • Peter Coats,, Great Gardens of Britain [ISBN: 0907407579]
  • Ronald King, 1979, Great Gardens of the World, Peerage Books London [ISBN: 1850520305]
  • Herb Gustafson 1999, The art of Japanese gardens, Sterling Pub. Co. New York [ISBN: 0806917784]
  • Louisa Jones 2009, The garden visitor's companion, Thames & Hudson London [ISBN: 9780500514634]
  • David Welch 1991, Management of urban parks, Longman Harlow [ISBN: 0582078334]
This module does not have any article/paper resources
This module does not have any other resources

Module Delivered in

Programme Code Programme Semester Delivery
BN_SHTSC_8 Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Horticulture [240 ECTS credits] 8 Elective
BN_SHTSC_B Bachelor of Science (Honours) in Horticulture [Add on 60 ECTS credits] 2 Elective